The highest “native” resolution camera available today is the Phase One FX IQ4 medium format camera at 150MP. Higher than that there is the Hasselblad H6D-400C at 400MP, but it uses pixel-shift image capture. Next in line is the medium format Fujifilm GFX 100/100S at 102 MP. In fact we don’t get to full-frame sensors until we hit the Sony A7R IV, at a tiny 61MP. Crazy right? The question is how useful are these sensors for the photographer? The answer is not straightforward. For some photographic professionals these large sensors make inherent sense. For the average casual photographer, they likely don’t.
People who don’t photograph a lot tend to be somewhat bamboozled by megapixels, like more is better. But more megapixels does not mean a better image. Here are some things to consider when thinking about when considering megapixels.
There is a point when it becomes hard to cram any more photosites into a particular sensor – they just become too small. For example the upper bound with APC-S sensors seems to be around 33MP, with full-frame it seems to be around 60MP. Put too many photosites on a sensor and the density of the photosites increases, as the size of the photosites decreases. The smaller the photosite, the harder it is for it to collect light. For example Fuji APS-C cameras seem to tap out at around 26MP – the X-T30 has a photosite pitch of 3.75µm. Note that Fuji’s leap to a larger number of megapixels also means a leap to a larger sensor – the medium format sensor with a sensor size of 44×33mm. Compared to the APS-C sensor (23.5×15.6mm), the medium format sensor is nearly four times the size. A 51MP medium format sensor has photosites which are 5.33µm in size, or 1.42 times of size of the 26MP APS-C sensor.
The verdict? Squeezing more photosites onto the same size sensor does increase resolution, but sometimes at the expense of how light is acquired by the sensor.
Image and linear resolution
Sensors are made up of photosites that acquire the data used to make image pixels. The image resolution of an image describes the number of pixels used to construct an image. For example a 16MP sensor with a 3:2 aspect ratio has an image resolution of 4899×3266 pixels – the dimensions are sometimes termed the linear resolution. To obtain twice the image resolution we need a 64MP sensor, rather than a 32MP sensor. A 32MP sensor has 6928×4619 photosites, which results in a 1.4 times increase in the linear resolution of the image. The pixel count has doubled, but the linear resolution has not. Upgrading from a 16MP sensor to a 24MP sensor means a ×1.5 increase in the pixel count, and a ×1.2 increase in linear resolution. The transition from 16MP to 64MP is a ×2 increase in linear resolution, and a ×4 increase in the number of pixels. That’s why the difference between 16MP and 24MP sensors is also dubious (see Figure 1).
To double the linear resolution of a 24MP sensor you need a 96MP sensor. So the 61MP sensor provides about double the linear resolution of a 16MP sensor, as the 102MP sensor doubles the 24MP sensor.
The verdict? Doubling the pixel count, i.e. image resolution, does not double the linear resolution.
When you have more photosites, you also have to ask what their physical size is. Squeezing 41 million photosites on the same size sensor as one which previously had 24 million pixels means that each pixel will be smaller, and that comes with its own baggage. Consider for instance the full-frame camera, the full-frame Leica M10-R, which has a 7864×5200 photosites (41MP) meaning the photosite size is roughly 4.59 microns. The full-frame 24MP Leica M-E has a photosite size of 5.97 microns, so 1.7 times the area. Large photosites allow more light to be captured, while smaller photosites gather less light, so when their low signal strength is transformed into a pixel, more noise is generated.
The verdict? From the perspective of photosite size, 24MP captured on a full-frame sensor will be better than 24MP on an APS-C sensor, which in turn is better than 24MP on a M43 sensor (theoretically anyways).
Comparing the quality of a 16MP lens to a 24MP lens, we might determine that the quality, and sharpness of the lens is more important than the number of pixels. In fact too many people place an emphasis on the number of pixels and forget about the fact that light has to pass through a lens before it is captured by the sensor and converted into an image. Many high-end cameras already provide an in-camera means of generating a high-resolution images, often four times the actual image resolution – so why pay more for more megapixels? Is a 50MP full-frame sensor any good without optically perfect (or near-perfect) lenses? Likely not.
The verdict? Good quality lenses are just as important as more megapixels.
People tend to forget that images have to be saved on memory cards (and post-processed). The greater the megapixels, the greater the resulting file size. A 24MP image stored as a 24-bit/pixel JPEG will be 3.4MB in size (at 1/20). As a 12-bit RAW the file size would be 34MB. A 51MP camera like the Fujifilm GFX 50S II would have a 7.3MB JPEG, and a 73MB 12-bit RAW. If the only format used is JPEG it’s probably, fine, but the minute you switch to RAW it will use way more storage.
The verdict? More megapixels = more megabytes.
The most important thing to consider may be what the camera is being used for?
- Website / social media photography – Full-width images for websites are optimal at around 2400×1600 (aka 4MP), blog-post images max. 1500 pixels in width (regardless of height), and inside content max 1500×1000. Large images can reduce website performance, and due to screen resolution won’t be visualized to their fullest capacity anyways.
- Digital viewing – 4K televisions have roughly 3840×2160 = 8,294,400 pixels. Viewing photographs from a camera with a large spatial resolution will just mean they are down-sampled for viewing. Even the Apple Pro Display XDR only has 6016×3384=20MP view capacity (which is a lot).
- Large prints – Doing large posters, for example 20×30″ requires a good amount of resolution if they are being printed at 300DPI, which is the nominal standard. So this needs about 54MP (check out the calculator). But you can get by with less resolution because few people view a poster at 100%.
- Average prints – An 8×10″ print requires 2400×3000 = 7.2MP at 300DPI. A 26MP image will print maximum size 14×20″ at 300DPI (which is pretty good).
- Video – Does not need high resolution, but rather 4K video at a descent frame rate.
The verdict? The megapixel amount really depends on the core photographic application.
So where does that leave us? Pondering a lot of information, most of which the average photographer may not be that interested in. Selecting the appropriate megapixel size is really based on what a camera will be used for. If you commonly take landscape photographs that are used in large scale posters, then 61 or 102 megapixels is certainly not out of the ballpark. For the average photographer taking travel photos, or for someone taking images for the web, or book publishing, then 16MP (or 24MP at the higher end) is ample. That’s why smartphone cameras do so well at 12MP. High MP cameras are really made more for professionals. Nobody needs 61MP.
The voverall erdict? Most photographers don’t need 61 megapixels. In reality anywhere between 16 and 24 megapixels is just fine.
- A full explanation of image file sizes can be found on scantips.com: Understanding File Types, Bit Depth, & Memory Cost of Images
- What Camera Should I get? | How Many Megapixels Do I Need?
- SilentPeakPhoto – How many Megapixels do you need?
- Android Authority – You don’t need 108MP
- Fstoppers – How Much Resolution Do You Really Need?