# The Retinex algorithm for beautifying pictures

There are likely thousands of different algorithms out in the ether to “enhance” images. Many are just “improvements” of existing algorithms, and offer a “better” algorithm – better in the eyes of the beholder of course. Few are tested in any extensive manner, for that would require subjective, qualitative experiments. Retinex is a strange little algorithm, and like so many “enhancement” algorithms is often plagued by being described in a too “mathy” manner. The term Retinex was coined by Edwin Land [2] to describe the theoretical need for three independent colour channels to describe colour constancy. The word was a contraction or “retina”, and “cortex”. There is an exceptional article [3] on the colour theory written by McCann which can be found here.

The Retinex theory was introduced by Land and McCann [1] in 1971 and is based on the assumption of a Mondrian world, referring to the paintings by the dutch painter Piet Mondrian. Land and McCann argue that human color sensation appears to be independent of the amount of light, that is the measured intensity, coming from observed surfaces [1]. Therefore, Land and McCann suspect an underlying characteristic guiding human color sensation [1].

There are many differing algorithms for implementing Retinex. The algorithm illustrated here can be found in the image processing software `ImageJ`. This algorithm for Retinex is based on the multiscale retinex with colour restoration algorithm (MSRCR) – it combines colour constancy with local contrast enhancement. In reality it’s quite a complex little algorithm with four parameters, as shown in Figure 1.

• The Level specifies the distribution of the [Gaussian] blurring used in the algorithm.
• Uniform treats all image intensities similarly.
• Low enhances dark regions in the image.
• High enhances bright regions in the image.
• The Scale specifies the depth of the Retinex effect
• The minimum value is 16, a value providing gross, unrefined filtering. The maximum value is 250. Optimal and default value is 240.
• The Scale division specifies the number of iterations of the multiscale filter.
• The minimum required is 3. Choosing 1 or 2 removes the multiscale characteristic and the algorithm defaults to a single scale Retinex filtering. A value that is too high tends to introduce noise in the image.
• The Dynamic adjusts the colour of the result, with large valued producing less saturated images.
• Extremely image dependent, and may require tweaking.

The thing with Retinex, like so many of its enhancement brethren is that the quality of the resulting image is largely dependent on the person viewing it. Consider the following, fairly innocuous picture of some clover blooms in a grassy cliff, with rock outcroppings below (Figure 2). There is a level of one-ness about the picture, i.e. perceptual attention is drawn to the purple flowers, the grass is secondary, and the rock, tertiary. There is very little in the way of contrast in this image.

The algorithm is suppose to be able to do miraculous things, but that does involve a *lot* of tweaking the parameters. The best approach is actually to use the default parameters. Figure 3 shows Figure 2 processed with the default values shown in Figure 1. The image appears to have a lot more contrast in it, and in some cases features in the image have increased their acuity.

I don’t find these processed images are all that useful when used by themselves, however averaging the image with the original produces an image with a more subdued contrast (see Figure 4), having features with increased sharpness.

What about the Low and High versions? Examples are shown below in Figures 5 and 6, for the Low and High settings respectively (with the other parameters used as default). The Low setting produces an image full of contrast in the low intensity regions.

Retinex is quite a good algorithm for dealing with suppressing shadows in images, although even here there needs to be some serious post-processing in order to create an aesthetically pleasing. The picture in Figure 7 shows a severe shadow in a inner-city photograph of Bern (Switzerland). Using the Low setting, the shadow is suppressed (Figure 8), but the algorithm processes the whole image, so other details such as the sky are affected. That aside, it has restored the objects hidden in the shadow quite nicely.

In reality, Retinex acts like any other filter, and the results are only useful if they invoke some sense of aesthetic appeal. Getting the write aesthetic often involves quite a bit of parameter manipulation.

#### Further reading:

1. Land, E.H., McCann, J.J., ” Lightness and retinex theory”, Journal of the Optical Society of America, 61(1), pp. 1-11 (1971).
2. Land, E., “The Retinex,” American Scientist, 52, pp.247-264 (1964).
3. McCann, J.J., “Retinex at 50: color theory and spatial algorithms, a review“, Journal of Electronic Imaging, 26(3), 031204 (2017)
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# In image processing, have we have forgotten about aesthetic appeal?

In the golden days of photography, the quality and aesthetic appeal of the photograph was unknown until after the photograph was processed, and the craft of physically processing it played a role in how it turned out. These images were rarely enhanced because it wasn’t as simple as just manipulating it in Photoshop. Enter the digital era. It is now easier to take photographs, from just about any device, anywhere. The internet would not be what it is today without digital media, and yet we have moved from a time when photography was a true art, to one in which photography is a craft. Why a craft? Just like a woodworker crafts a piece of wood into a piece of furniture, so to do photographers  crafting their photographs in the like of Lightroom,or Photoshop.There is nothing wrong with that, although I feel like too much processing takes away from the artistic side of photography.

Ironically the image processing community has spent years developing filters to process images, to make them look more visually appealing – sharpening filters to improve acuity, contrast enhancement filters to enhance features. The problem is that many of these filters were designed to work in an “automated” manner (and many really don’t work well), and the reality is that people prefer to use interactive filters. A sharpening filter may work best when the user can modify its strength, and judge its aesthetic appeal through qualitative means. The only place “automatic” image enhancement algorithms exist are those in-app filters, and in-camera filters. The problem is that it is far too difficult to judge how a generic filter will affect a photograph, and each photograph is different. Consider the following photograph.

A vacation pic.

The photograph was taken using the macro feature on my 12-40mm Olympus m4/3 lens. The focal area is the top-part of the bottom of the wooden bucket. So some of the cherries are in focus, others are not, and there is a distinct soft blur in the remainder of the picture. This is largely because of the low depth of field associated with close-ip photographs… but in this case I don’t consider this a limitation, and would not necessarily want to suppress it through sharpening, although I might selectively enhance the cherries, either through targeted sharpening or colour enhancement. The blur is intrinsic to the aesthetic appeal of the image.

Most filters that have been incredibly successful are usually proprietary, and so the magic exists in a black box. The filters created by academics have never faired that well. Many times they are targeted to a particular application, poorly tested (on Lena perhaps?), or not at all designed from the perspective of aesthetics. It is much easier to manipulate a photograph in Photoshop because the aesthetics can be tailored to the users needs. We in the image processing community have spent far too many years worrying about quantitative methods of determining the viability of algorithms to improve images, but the reality is that aesthetic appeal is all that really matters. Aesthetic appeal matters, and it is not something that is quantifiable. Generic algorithms to improve the quality of images don’t exist, it’s just not possible in the overall scope of the images available. Filters like Instagram’s Larkwork because they are not changing the content of the image really, they are modifying the colour palette, and they do that applying the same look-up table for all images (derived from some curve transformation).

People doing image processing or computer vision research need to move beyond the processing and get out and take photographs. Partially to learn first hand the problems associated with taking photographs, but also to gain an understanding of the intricacies of aesthetic appeal.

# Why aesthetic appeal in image processing matters

What makes us experience beauty?

I have spent over two decades writing algorithms for image processing, however I have never really created anything uber fulfilling . Why? Because it is hard to create generic filters, especially for tasks such as image beautification. In many ways improving the aesthetic appeal of photographs involves modifying the content on an image in more non natural ways. It doesn’t matter how AI-ish an algorithm is, it cannot fathom what the concept of aesthetic appeal is.  A photograph one person may find pleasing may be boring to others. Just like a blank canvas is considered art to some, but not to others. No amount of mathematical manipulation will lead to a algorithmic panacea of aesthetics. We can modify the white balance and play with curves, indeed we can make 1001 changes to a photograph, but the final outcome will be perceived differently by different people.

After spending years researching image processing algorithms, and designing some of my own, it wasn’t until I decided to take the art of acquiring images to a greater depth that I realized algorithms are all good and well, but there is likely little need for the plethora of algorithms created every year. Once you pick up a camera, and start playing with different lenses, and different camera settings, you begin to realize that part of the nuance any photograph is its natural aesthetic appeal. Sure, there are things that can be modified to improve aesthetic appeal, such as contrast enhancement or improving the sharpness, but images also contain unfocused regions that contribute to their beauty.

If you approach image processing purely from a mathematical (or algorithmic) viewpoint, what you are trying to achieve is some sort of utopia of aesthetics. But this is almost impossible, largely because every photography is unique.  It is possible to improve the acuity of objects in an image using techniques such as unsharp masking, but it is impossible to resurrect a blurred image – but maybe that’s the point. One could create an fantastic filter that sharpens an image beautifully, but with the sharpness of modern lenses, that may not be practical. Consider this example of a photograph taken in Montreal. The image has good definition of colour, and has a histogram which is fairly uniform. There isn’t a lot that can be done to this image, because it truly does represent the scene as it exists in real life. If I had taken this photo on my iPhone, I would be tempted to post it on Instagram, and add a filter… which might make it more interesting, but maybe only from the perspective of boosting colour.

A corner hamburger joint in Montreal – original image.

Here is the same image with only the colour saturation boosted (by ×1.6). Have its visual aesthetics been improved? Probably. Our visual system would say it is improved, but that is largely because our eyes are tailored to interpret colour.

A corner hamburger joint in Montreal – enhanced image.

If you take a step back from the abyss of algorithmically driven aesthetics, you begin to realize that too few individuals in the image processing community have taken the time to really understand the qualities of an image. Each photograph is unique, and so the idea of generic image processing techniques is highly flawed. Generic techniques work sufficiently well in machine vision applications where the lighting is uniform, and the task is also uniform, e.g. inspection of rice grains, or identification of burnt potato chips. No aesthetics are needed, just the ability to isolate an object and analyze it for whatever quality is needed. It’s one of the reasons unsharp masking has always been popular. Alternative algorithms for image sharpening really don’t work much better. And modern lenses are sharp, in fact many people would be more likely to add blur than take it away.