In a previous post we looked at whether image blur could be fixed, and concluded that some of it could be slightly reduced, but heavy blur likely could not. Here is the image we used, showing blur at two ends of the spectrum.
Now the “Unsharp Masking” filter in ImageJ, is not terribly different from that found in other applications. It allows the user to specify a “radius” for the Gaussian blur filter, and a mask weight (0.1-0.9). How does modifying the parameters affect the filtered image? Here are some examples using a radius of 10 pixels, and a variable mask weight.
We can see that as the mask weight increases, the contrast change begins to affect the colour in the image. Our eyes may perceive the “rent K” text to be sharper in the third image with MW=0.75, but the colour has been impacted in such as way that the image aesthetics have been compromised. There is little change to the acuity of the “Mölle” text (apart from the colour contrast). A change in contrast can certainly improve the visibility of detail in the image (i.e. they are easier to discern), however maybe not their actual acuity. It is sometimes a trick of the eye.
What about if we changed the radius? Does a larger radius make a difference? Here is what happens when we use a radius of 40 pixels, and a MW=0.25.
Again, the contrast is slightly increased, and perceptual acuity may be marginally improved, but again this is likely due to the contrast element of the filter.
Note that using a small filter size, e.g. 3-5 pixels in a large image (12-16MP) will have little effect, unless there are features in the image that size. For example, in an image containing features 1-2 pixels in width (e.g. a macro image), this might be appropriate, however will likely do very little in a landscape image.
Many image post-processing applications use unsharp masking (UM) as their choice of sharpening algorithm. It is one of the most ubiquitous methods of image sharpening. Unsharp masking was introduced by Schreiber  in 1970 for the purpose of improving the quality of wirephoto pictures for newspapers. It is based on the principle of photographic masking whereby a low-contrast positive transparency is made of the original negative. The mask is then “sandwiched” with the negative, and the amalgam used to produce the final print. The effect is an increase in sharpness.
The process of unsharp masking accentuates the high-frequency components of an image, i.e. the edge regions where there is a sharp transition in image intensity. It does this by extracting the high-frequency details from an image, and adding them to the original image. This process can be better understood by first considering a 1D signal shown in the figure below.
This is the process of what happens to the signal
The original signal.
The signal is “blurred”, by a filter which enhances the “low-frequency” components of the signal.
The blurred signal, ➁, is subtracted from ➀, to extract the “high-frequency” components of the signal, i.e. the “edge” signal.
The “edge” signal is added to the original signal ➀ to produce the sharpened signal.
In the context of digital images unsharp masking works by subtracting a blurred form of an image from the original image itself to create an “edge” image which is then used to improve the acuity of the original image. There are many different approaches to unsharp masking which use differing forms of filters. Some use a more traditional approach using the process outlines above, with the blurring actuated using a Gaussian blur, while others use specific filters which create “edge” images directly, which can be either added to, or subtracted from the original image.
 Schreiber, W., “Wirephoto quality improvement by unsharp masking,” Pattern Recognition, Vol.2, pp.117-121 (1970).